Design and construction of a realistic shoulder model for impact testingPublic
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Medical education and shoulder injury research would benefit from an anatomically correct physical model that includes the kinematic accuracy of scapulohumeral rhythm. Our model’s defining feature is the inclusion of relative scapular movement, which is not found in existing physical models due to the complexity of the shoulder joint. We engineered a full-scale, anatomically accurate model with linearized muscle attachments that replicates motion of the shoulder bones during abduction using a motorized activation system. The model abducts the humerus from rest to 60° and repeatedly returns the scapula to within 5% of the initial position. Our model consistently achieved 1° of scapular rotation for every 3° of humeral abduction, which is within 33% of the average anatomical scapulohumeral ratio. We expect this model to evolve into an innovative commercial product with additional muscles and more realistic soft tissue attachments that would improve the model’s mechanics and increase its range of motion.
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